Biodiversity and its role in the ecosystems

The word biodiversity includes a variation of living organisms at more than one level. The word ‘Diversity’ can be used to refer to the existence of different kinds of organisms or species. For example, within a forest ecosystem, the diversity of the plants can be studied individually. The diversity of the animals would differ from the diversity of the microorganisms existing there. Diversity can be studied at many levels. It may be the diversity of living organisms at the genetic level, at the species level, or the habitat level. The region around the equator receives the maximum portion of the sunlight and rain penetration. This region is considered to be the most suitable for the thriving diversity of the organisms. The high temperature and high humid conditions permit the growth of the organisms and hence support the biodiversity.

A diverse ecosystem is more efficient than a less diverse ecosystem. The species diversity is more suitable for providing the stability to an ecosystem. The growing use of the word biodiversity is motivated by the fact that global biodiversity itself is being lost at an unprecedented pace in an ecological sense. Although it has been seen that the substantial global depletion of biodiversity that has happened over the timeframe of human life has not halted the rise in the global human population. There is strong evidence that loss of biodiversity can influence organisms’ well-being and have negative economic impacts.

The diversity of living organisms is crucial for human existence. The ethical reason is that all living beings have the right to live, even if it is not contributing in any way to human life. The resources of biodiversity are huge, some have not even been discovered or understood yet. The destruction or deletion or the quality degradation of the biodiversity hampers these aspects of the biodiversity’s role and anticipated usages.

The decline of biodiversity will influence the rate of decomposition, the development of plant biomass, and the effect on fish populations in the marine environment. Reducing aquatic production is expected to mean that fisheries would not be able to satisfy the demands of an expanding population. In addition to the gradual decrease in environmental function associated with habitat decrease, it has been proposed that there is a possibility that a barrier may be reached at some stage and that a disaster may occur.

History of Biodiversity:
Accelerated changes in the environment usually cause mass extinction events. It is reported that over 99.9% of the animals which has ever existed on earth, totaling over five billion animals, are extinct. The total number of species of the animals alone existing on Earth is estimated to be around 10-14 million. Out of this giant number, only 1.2 million are recorded. 1 trillion organisms are surviving on the Earth as per an estimate of the scientists (2016, May).

Mass Extinctions and Biodiversity:
The planet earth has been established before about 4.54 billion years. The first unquestionable confirmation of ‘life on Earth’ dates to at least 3.5 billion years. Five global mass extinctions and numerous smaller occurrences have resulted in a significant and sudden decline in biodiversity since life started on Earth via the Cambrian eruption, the period in which several multicellular primate species emerged initially, the Phanerozoic eon witnessed a dramatic increase in biodiversity. The subsequent 400 million years have included repeated, major declines in species known as events in mass extinction.

The destruction of the rainforest led to a significant depletion of animals and plants in the Carboniferous period. The Permian-Triassic asteroid impact, that occurred a million years ago, was by far the most devastating; it took about 30 million years to restore vertebrates. The most recent occurrence of extinction, the Cretaceous-Paleogene occurrence, happened about 65 million years ago and has always gained keen interest than others since the non-avian dinosaurs existed during that time.

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