Business Combinations from Association

When the businesses combine through association, they do not give up their autonomy. On the contrary, these combinations are done in order to achieve some business goals. The business combinations through association are further divided into three types. These further segments are trade associations, chambers of commerce, and informal agreements.

Trade associations: This type of business combination is when different business organizations performing similar trade would come together for the business’s expected economic and financial growth. The trade associations are formed on the basis of different territories. The trade association is basically a non-profit organization.

Chamber of commerce: The chamber of commerce is that type of business combination in which associations form a connected chamber of trade, commerce and industry voluntarily. The chamber of commerce is formed in order to achieve collective business goals. The main motive is to promote and safeguard the interests of business organizations in a particular country, region, or the entire world. In addition, it works for the expansion of the trade.

Informal agreements: Informal agreements are the type of business combinations in which the parties involved are bound in a contractual promise that restricts the output, calculation of rates, etc. It becomes the moral obligation of the business organization to keep such contractual promises.

Business combinations through Federations
When the businesses combine through federation, they come up with a motive of providing benefits to its members. These combinations are done in order to achieve some specific purpose under an agreement. The business combinations through federation are further divided into three types. These further segments are pools, cartels, and formal agreements.

Formal agreements: Formal agreements are the type of business combinations in which the parties involved are legally bounded in a contractual agreement, in which the obligations and responsibilities of the parties involved are stated. It becomes the legally bounded contract that obligates the business organization to maintain the contractual agreement.

Pools: The pool is the type of business combination in which all the interested people collectively form a joint pooling agreement. This agreement is formed without giving up their separate entities. This agreement is made in order to regulate the demand and supply of the product. The joint pooling agreement is made so that the demand of the product is regulated, the output of the product reallocated, income is redistributed, etc.

Cartels: A cartel is a form of business combination in which all the pools are collected. Common sales agent of pools is known as cartels. The main motive of the cartel is to finish the competition by forming a federation completely.

Business Combinations through Consolidations
The business combinations are even formed through consolidations. There are two types of consolidations. These are partial consolidations and complete consolidation. The partial consolidations are further divided into trust, holding company, and community of interest. The complete consolidation, on the other hand, is divided into mergers, amalgamations, and acquisitions.

1. Partial consolidations

Trusts: The form of partial consolidations in which the control is transferred by the shareholders of the constituent business organization organizations under a trust agreement to a board of trustees is known as a trust under partial consolidations. This control is transferred after receiving a trusted certificate from the trustees.

Holding company: A holding company is a form of business organization that creates some subsidiary business organization by owning a substantial amount of shares in the subsidiaries. The subsidiaries are separate legal entities, but the holding company controls them.

Community of interest: A Community of interest is the form of partial consolidations. A group of common stockholders controls the business policies of various business organizations without any formal central administration.

2. Complete consolidation

Merger: Merger is a type of complete consolidation in which two or more business organizations combine to form a new organization.

Acquisitions: Acquisition is a type of complete consolidation in which one business organization is acquired by another business organization at the acquisition price.

Amalgamations: Amalgamations are the type of complete consolidation in which two or more business organizations are consolidated to form a new business organization.

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