As mentioned above, this is a fast activating mechanism for the regulation of short-term changes.
There are three components of this system:
â€¢ Sensors- These help to detect any changes in the pressure and blood flow to be able to provide to the integrator located in the blood. There are three types of sensors located at different locations:
1) Arterial baroreceptors- these are present on the aortic arch and carotid arteries. They remain inactive when the mean arterial pressure is normal since there is no stretch on the sinuses. However when the blood pressure increases the walls of the aortic and carotid sinuses are stretched along with the nerve endings in these walls. This leads to the nerve vessels generating graded potential and depolarization waves.
2) Cardiopulmonary receptors- They are located in the low-pressure regions of the cardiovascular system which include vena cavae, the pulmonary artery and vein, and the atria. They also get activated in response to the development of tensions in the wall and its subsequent stretching; the walls they’re embedded in are also supplied with nerve endings which respond by the generation of graded potential, here as well.
3) Chemoreceptors- They are located in the brain (brainstem medulla) as well in the peripheral region nearby the aortic arch and carotid sinus. The peripheral chemoreceptors respond to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and H+ levels. They get activated when oxygen levels decrease or when the partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases or the H+ levels increases. Brainstem chemoreceptors on the other hand when the pH of the interstitial fluid increase due to an increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
â€¢ Cardiovascular control center- the central integrator
These activated sensors send their neural signals to the region in the brain called the medulla oblongata. This region then interprets these signals and compares them with the normal pressure range to decide the course of action that is needed to make the adjustments.
Medulla oblongata itself has the cardiovascular center which is a collection of nuclei that act as the integrator. This center further has regions that are responsible for different actions. These include; a) vasomotor center- Cells of this region when getting activated result in vasoconstriction. b) Cardio acceleratory center- These cells upon activation increase heart rate and increase myocardial isotropy ( increase muscular contraction) c) Cardio inhibitory region- As the name suggests, the cells of this region are responsible to decrease heart rate when activated.
The sensory afferents from the baroreceptor reflex synapse at the interneurons in the medulla oblongata. These interneurons form synapses at the three control centers mentioned above. An important thing to note is that the sensory inputs are all excitatory while the interneuron synapses could be excitatory or inhibitory. The cardio inhibitory center receives excitatory inputs from the interneurons while inputs of inhibitory interneurons control the cardio acceleratory center and vasomotor center. Thus, in case of increased arterial pressure, the baroreceptor reflex sends signals to the control center; the cardio inhibitory region getting excitatory interneurons gets activated while the cardio acceleratory and vasomotor centers which receive inputs from inhibitory interneurons get inactivated.
The cardiovascular receives inputs from not only the baroreceptor reflex but also from other brain regions and peripheral regions which include the hypothalamus, brainstem, cortex, and pain centers.
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