Chromosomes for female and male sex linked gene

Gender Determination:
The male precursor sperm cell is the one that decides the fate of the child. During the cell cycle, in the interphase, replication of the chromosome pair occurs, thereby leading to the formation of two pairs of chromosomes that further undergo meiosis and leads to either of the two possibilities with four different cells. These are produced as a result of the segregation of replicated chromosomes. The first one being an X chromosome in the cell and then being a Y chromosome in the cell, which then meets the X chromosome and by a random process is selected to be donating either X chromosome or Y chromosome and further a female or a male child to be born. It can further be explained as if the sperm cell carries the X chromosome and combines with the egg cell, a female having (XX) would be formed. The sperm cell carrying the Y chromosome combines with the female chromosome from the egg cell, which leads to the formation of a zygote (XY) and a male would be formed.

Hence, there is a 50% possibility of the child being born as a male and a 50% possibility of being born as a female depending on the sperm cell.

Inheritance of Traits:
X chromosomes possess various genes that are involved in protein expression for both genders, whereas Y chromosomes are also responsible for protein expression but it is specifically observed in the case of males. The X chromosome is also important in the nervous system development, skeletal muscle development, and also eye receptors are dependant on the X chromosome.

The genes that are specifically linked to the protein expression as by the X chromosome are found to X-linked genes or sex-linked genes. The various types of X-linked genes are present, thereby involving homozygous dominant gene, a heterozygous dominant gene, heterozygous, and hemizygous. Color blindness is one example of such gene encoding as X-linked homozygous dominant. It corresponds to the fact that an individual can only be color blind if a dominant gene is present in the case.

An X-linked recessive disorder can be explained as the genetic disorder that corresponds to an altered copy of an X chromosome most prevalently seen in males who inherit the gene from their affected or carrier mother. Mother being affected can be seen in the case of Fabry’s disease that is then passed on to the males of the next generation being affected. Female carriers passing on the altered gene to their female offspring are as low as 25%, whereas in the case of offspring being a male, the chances hike up to 50% in the case of a mother being the carrier and in case the mother is being affected, the chances prevail of being 100% effective. Homozygous recessive is the fact that both the genes have a recessive gene corresponding to the fact that both the genes have to be recessive. It is mostly observed in males. It is also observed in cases involving color blindness such that the red-green color trait is found in a female. Xc is the representation of a recessive allele that corresponds to color blindness. XcX females would have normal vision, whereas XcY males would be colorblind. Females having allelic representation such as XcXc would be having a colorblind vision. Haemophilia is another example of an X-linked recessive gene. Females having an XcX gene acts as a carrier for color blindness. Hemizygous genes are observed in case of males. They lack the pair of alleles and have a single gene making them more prone to recessive disorder linked with the X chromosome. The various diseases that are X-linked inherited to males include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Fabry’s disease, hemophilia, etc.

Inactivation of X Chromosome:
It is observed that in female somatic cells, one of the chromosomes is inactivated with the help of it being transformed into a Barr body. The selection of the X chromosome from the pair to be converted into a Barr body is wholly randomized in the process. X-inactivation center is the area where inactivation occurs, and Xist is the gene that is implicated during inactivation. Tsix being as the antisense of xist occurs on a strand of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Xist helps in the inactivation of the strand to convert it into a Barr body.

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