There are a set of sensors on the walls of the dietary canal that help in controlling digestive functions. Mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and osmoreceptors that are able, respectively, to sense mechanical, chemical, and osmotic stimuli are part of the sensory system. For example, when the presence of food has induced the stomach to expand, these receptors may detect whether food particles have been broken down enough, how much liquid is there, and the form of nutrients present in the food. Stimulation of these receptors activates a fitting reaction that facilitates the digestive process. This involves sending a message for the activation of the glands that are responsible for the secretion of digestive juices into the lumen; it may also involve stimulating the muscles in the food canal, triggering peristalsis and segmentation that transfers food along the intestinal tract. Nerve plexuses that communicate with the central nervous system and other nerve plexuses, either inside the same digestive organ or in separate organs, are located in the walls of the entire food canal. Such contacts prompt several kinds of reflexes. Long reflexes are coordinated by extrinsic nerve plexuses, affecting the central and autonomic nervous systems and acting in response to stimuli that are from outside the digestive system. On the other side, short reflexes inside the alimentary canal wall are coordinated by intrinsic nerve plexuses. In one region of the digestive tract, short reflexes control activities, organize local peristaltic movements, and induce digestive secretions.
Two forms of ganglia collect the neurons of the ENS. They are as follows:
The myenteric (Auerbach) plexus is present between the muscular external’s inner and outer layers.
In the submucosa, it presents the submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus.
The submucosal plexus or the plexus of Meissner is located between the circular muscle and the mucosa in the submucosal region. As a ganglionated network in the small and large intestines, the submucosal plexus is most important. It is not present in the esophagus as a ganglionated plexus and in the submucosal space of the stomach, it is sparse. The intestinal submucosal plexus consists of an internal submucosal network situated on the serosal side of the muscularis mucosae in larger mammals (for example, humans) and an external plexus adjacent to the luminal side of the circular muscle covering.
In the intestinal circular and longitudinal muscle covering, most motor innervation originates from motor neurons and myenteric plexus containing their cell bodies. From the submucosal plexus, villi and motor innervation of the intestinal secretory glands originates. Neurons in the submucosal ganglia send fibers to the myenteric plexus and also the myenteric plexus synaptic input is obtained from axons projected from the myenteric plexus as well. The interconnections connect the two networks into a nervous system that is functionally integrated.
Connection joining inner and outer submucosal layer:
A coiled, corkscrew-like appearance was often displayed by nerve strands connecting the normally monolayered outside with the normally multilayered inner layer of the plexus. It was found that these strands potentially emerge from all the points in the internal plexus. They at times showed the presence of smaller or even larger ganglia, whereas sometimes they did not show. Thus, ganglia were either a part of the inner submucosal plexus in the middle part of the submucosal layer or were woven in strands that are interconnected.
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