Economic Load and Movement of Muscles

Muscles are a specific group of tissues that assists an individual in moving, speaking, chewing etc. They also mediate the functions of regulating the processes of digestion, heartbeat, breathing, vision etc. Muscular system is known to comprise of nearly 600 different muscles that work in collaboration with each other in order to mediate various functions. The muscles in between two mobile entities like bones mediates the movement of the bones through the contractions of the muscle. These contractions of the muscle are well elicited on the basis of two factors- Force, Length. The force is further described by the acts of tension/ load. The tension of the muscle is defined as the force that a muscle exercises on an entity. Load is defined as the force that an entity exercises on the muscle.

Muscles are categorized into three different categories:

Skeletal muscle:

Skeletal muscles are a type of muscles that are under voluntary control. They are usually associated with the bones and are involved in the movement of bones mediated by contractions. They are also known as striated muscles based on the appearance of the striations on the muscles.

Smooth muscle:

Smooth muscle are a type of muscles that are present on the linings of the blood vessels and organs like stomach. They are alternatively known as visceral. They lack striations and the cells of these muscles are usually spindle shaped. They are weak in nature and usually involved in involuntary movements.

Cardiac muscle:

Cardiac muscle is a muscle tissue localized only in the cardiac tissue. These muscles mediate the circulation of blood all over the body. It generates involuntary self-contractions that generates a heart beat. The contraction rate is signaled by nervous system.

Flexion and Extension:

Flexion and extension are defined as the mobility of the muscles that occurs in the sagittal surface. It is mainly involved in the forward and backward bodily/limb movements. In a vertebral column, flexion is defined as the forward movement of the body organs or neck whereas extension is the backward movement mediating the straightening of muscles.

Abduction and adduction:

Abduction and adduction are the movements that take place in the coronal surface. It mediates the medial-lateral movements involving the movements of fingers, toes, limbs, thumb. Abduction involves the lateral movement of the limb from the body’s midline. Adduction involves the contrasting motion that involves the movement of the limbs towards the midline.


Circumduction is defined as the circular movement of the regions of the body that encompasses a combinatorial effect of flexion, extension, adduction abduction. It occurs usually at the saddle as well as biaxial condyloid joints, multiaxial ball-socket joints.


Rotation is the movement that takes place in the vertebral column near the ball-socket or pivot joints. All the small rotatory motions occurring will mediate the twisting motility about the neck and body. Rotation can take place in the ball-socket joints in the hip and shoulder regions.

Pronation and Supination:

Supinated position in a forearm refers to the upper part of the limb with the posterior faced palm. Radius and ulna run in parallel directions.

Pronation position refers to the position that mediates the anterior facing palm. Radius and ulna appear in the shape of X.

plantar flexion and Dorsiflexion:

Dorsiflexion is referred to as the movement of the foot in top direction towards the anterior position as the front foot is raised up. Plantar flexion is the raising of the heel. These 2 movements are only possible near the ankle joint.

Protraction and retraction:

Protraction and retraction movements are regarded as the forward and backward motilities of mandible and scapula regions. Scapula protraction refers to the forward movement of the shoulder during hurling of balls or forcing a thing against a wall etc. Retraction is the contrasting movement that pulls the scapula in forward direction.

Mandible protraction takes place in the lower jaw region that is impelled in posterior direction. Mandible retraction will draw the lower jaw in anterior direction.

Depression and elevation

Depression is the downward movement of the mandible and scapula and elevation movements are the upward movements of the mandible and scapula.

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