Essay on Mendel’s Law of Segregation explain meiosis

I have send the review and I need the answer for it and 4 pictures for old exam 3 for biology 150 I need the right answer for them I need them by today at 5 pm.

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BIOSCI150 Review sheet for EXAM III –Fall 2020

This is only a guide. Refer to class notes and textbook for complete material.

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Covers material in chapters 7 – 11, chapter 12 (pages 296-297) and Appendix D.

 

  1. How does Mendel’s Law of Segregation explain meiosis?

 

  1. Are Dominant traits always the most common phenotype in a population?

 

  1. Distinguish how does the Law of Independent Assortment explains gametic combinations when two genes are close together on the same chromosome vs genes that occur on different chromosomes?

 

  1. (a+b)2 – should know how to expand and apply this for simple dihybrid cross problems. Hint: Remember, that in a heterozygous monohybrid cross it is 3/4 for dominant and 1/4 for recessive traits. But look at the problem carefully and watch out for crosses that involve homozygous and sex linked traits)

 

  1. How does blood types (A, B, AB, and O) codominance and what is the probability of two parents who are heterozygous for A and B blood group having a child who will have O blood group?

 

  1. What is the probability of a color blind father or mother (the gene is on the X chromosome ) passing on the traits to their son or daughter?

 

  1. What is the probability of two parents who are heterozygous for Huntington’s disease ( it is a dominant trait) having a child who will not have the disease? What are the implications of chromosome segments duplicating for evolution? What causes Huntington disease?

 

  1. How does epistasis explain coat color in Labrador dogs?

 

  1. Why does the Laws of Mendel also apply to genes that affect continuous variation such as height?

 

10.Why are most calico cats female?

 

  1. Why are there more examples of trisomy #21 and sex chromosomes than other chromosome aneuploidies in humans? Why are most aneuploids fatal in most birds and mammals?

 

  1. How is one of two X chromosomes silenced in mammals? – Xist gene and by methylation. (adding CH3 to DNA)

 

  1. Can an organism genotypically be XY, but phenotypically resemble a female?

 

  1. Are males always the heterogametic sex? Were the offspring of parthenogenetic Komodo dragons males or females?

 

  1. Where or what influences the initial signal for cell division in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes?

 

 

  1. What the essential factors that determine the four stages of the cell cycle (G1, S G2 and mitosis)?
  2. What is the significance of the cell fusion experiments?
  3. What is the role of cyclins and CDKs in the cell cycle?

 

  1. How does phosphorylation of RB (retinoblastoma) regulate cell division?

 

  1. What is the normal role of BRCA1?

 

 

 

  1. Are elephants with their substantial number of cells less or more prone to cancer?

 

  1. How does HPV stimulate induce cancer? RB blocks the cell cycle at R. HPV causes synthesis of E7 protein, which fits into the protein-binding site of RB, thereby inactivating it.

 

  1. How does HER2 cause cancer? Overexpression of HER2.

 

  1. How does meiosis differ from mitosis? Where does meiosis occur?
  2. When do the chromosomes separate during meiosis and when do these chromosomes split at the centromere during mitosis and meiosis?

When does crossing over occur in meiosis?  Does crossing over happen during mitosis?

When does DNA replication occur during meiosis?

 

26.Distinguish between a tetrad, chromatid and chromosome.

 

  1. What happened when Griffith the heat treated S strain was mixed with the non virulent Rough stain bacteria during the transformation experiment?

 

  1. How did Avery, Macleod and McCarthy experiment (1944) show that the transforming principle is DNA? What did they mix with the heat treated S and R strain of bacteria?

 

  1. How did Hershey and Chase Experiment show that the genetic material was made up of DNA?

They used 35S to tag protein coat and 32P for DNA to show that DNA was the genetic material.

 

  1. Why was Chargaff’s ratios (A = T and C = G) and Franklin’s X-ray photo crucial to Watson – Crick to decipher the DNA double helix structure? What does 3’ and 5’ refer to? Why are the two strands considered antiparallel? Are the bases attached to the sugar or phosphate of the helix?

What is the chemical composition of DNA?

 

  1. Four roles of DNA: – Replication – carry genetic material – instruct cellular functions – mutate.

 

  1. How did Meselson and Stahl’s experiment show that DNA replication was semiconservative? Where were the DNA bands after bacteria were transferred from 15N media to 14N media and grown for two generations?

 

  1. What role do primase; DNA polymerase and DNA ligase do during DNA replication? Why is replication always (in both strands) in the 5’ to 3’ direction? What are Okazaki fragments and are they present in the leading or lagging strand? Which strand would need multiple primers for a given stretch of DNA?

What is the significance of Telomerase in chromosomes?  Are they expressed more or less in cancer cells?

 

  1. How is DNA amplified by PCR? Explain basic steps: denature – anneal – extend – then repeat 30 times

 

  1. What are the differences between DNA and RNA? – double vs single stranded, RNA has uracil instead of thymine, pentose sugar in DNA lacks a sugar, DNA is found is present the nucleus and is much larger than RNA and not present in the cytoplasm. RNA is very short lived.

 

  1. What are the roles of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA during protein synthesis?

Central dogma in molecular Biology:

  Transcription                                                Translation

DNA—————————> RNA————————————–> Protein

 

  1. Which RNA is translated? What is a codon?

 

Know how to read the Genetic code table.

Where does RNA polymerase bind during transcription?  – to the Promoter sequence

 

  1. How does one conduct a positive test for Covid-19? RT-PCR

 

  1. Are all the transcribed sequences translated?

 

  1. Why are eukaryotic genes segmented into introns and exons?

Identify the mRNA stand and DNA strand in this classic figure shown here.  What is the significance of this experiment?

 

 

 

 

  1. How many mutations are said to occur in a cell every day? ~10,000 -16,000 of which 80% is repaired.

 

  1. How do mutations arise? – deamination – methylation (adding CH3)

– chemicals can also introduce spaces for random insertion

of genes

 

  1. What are different types of base pair point mutations? -Substitutions, silent, frameshift and nonsense mutations. What would happen if mutations occur at the splice site?

 

  1. What causes sickle cell anemia?

How many polypeptide chains make up the hemoglobin molecule and how many genes code for it?  On which chromosome are these genes located?

 

  1. Chromosomal mutations – Inversions, deletions, nonhomologous pairing, addition or deletion of chromosomes during meiosis.

 

  1. How does the Lac operon work? – inducer

 

  1. How is tryptophan synthesis regulated in prokaryotes? – repressor

 

  1. Where and what is the role of enhancer sites? – Sites where transcription factors bind to DNA.

 

  1. What do transcription factors do? – aid and activate RNA polymerase to transcribe genes.

 

  1. Where does RNA polymerase bind? – to the Promoter sites on DNA

 

  1. What is the significance of cloning?

 

  1. When are embryonic stem cells harvested from human embryos? i.e., how many days after conception?

 

  1. What is role of Histones during gene expression?

 

  1. How are worker and queen bees genetically produced?

 

  1. Can both DNA and well as histones have acetyl (COCH3) groups which enhance transcription and

methyl (CH3) groups which inhibit transcription? What role does this play in Epigenetics?

 

  1. What is the significance of heterochromatin and euchromatin in terms of gene expression. Where would you find more acetylated vs methylated sites?

 

  1. What is role of microRNA in gene expression? How do translational repressors work? How does ubiquitin control amount of protein?

 

  1. What is the difference between cloning a fragment of DNA into a vector and a whole organism?

Do all body cells (excepting mature sperm and egg) with a nucleus have the same number of chromosomes and hence the full complement of genes?

 

  1. What are restriction enzymes, vectors and host cells and how are useful for biotechnology?

 

  1. What percentage of the human genome is made up of protein coding genes, introns, exons, sines, lines, etc?

Why would there be more different proteins in plants than in animals?

What % of the human genome codes for proteins? See figure below

  1. Who won the Nobel prize for chemistry this year and for what?
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