European voyages of exploration and travels

What you see below is an EXAMPLE. Pay attention to the structure, type and detail of the
information presented, and the citations. Every outline will be different!
This is what is expected:
o Clear, well-organized structure: A solid introduction with a thesis, and one main topic per
section, with thorough analysis and plenty of good examples to prove your points, with
citations. Several sections will be needed to prove your thesis and fully answer the question.
o Proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation in complete sentences, etc.
o What you turn is NOT a draft. ***Turn in a final version of a well-written essay in outline
format, edited and polished! Include in your submission your two drafts, plus two “receipts”
from tutoring/writing center, and highlighted changes from the first and second drafts.
Example Question (this is a big question with several parts):
What were the main motives for European voyages of exploration and travels, what was the
“Columbian Exchange,” and what were some of the big positive and negative effects of this
Thesis/intro: (note that this contains the “5Ws” (who, what, where, when, why, why important,
and how) AND answers the whole question)
European voyages of exploration began in the middle of the 15th century and were provoked due to a
strong desire for Asian goods, which had become less accessible because Muslims began blocking
trade routes to the East when Constantinople was conquered. Other main reasons for the voyages of
exploration include the competitive nature of Western European states, the goal of spreading
Christianity, and the desire to gain glory that came with conquering new lands. The European
voyages led to the Columbian Exchange, or the transfer of plants, animals, diseases, people, and
goods between the “Old” Eastern and “New” Western worlds. Many benefits were reaped for
Europeans, but millions of Native Americans, and then Africans, were dealt a horrible blow with
losses of land, life, culture, and dignity due to diseases and serious abuses by those who ventured
south, around Africa, and west, across the Atlantic.
The following are outline sections. Note that each section has a topic (introductory) sentence that
answers one part of the question and provides specific examples with analysis (explanations) to
connect the example to the point, and citations. Also, note that the citations have made up page
numbers here because you need to find the correct page numbers for the textbook or primary
sources! You must include the author, title, date (especially if it’s a primary source), and page
number if it’s a book.
Chicago-style citations with footnotes is the style historians use. Small formatting mistakes will not be
a problem, but the basic formatting, with footnotes, should be attempted. You can use several
websites to help with formatting. Here is a good one: To
learn how to add a footnote:
A. Motives for Voyages:
Topic sentence (You do not need to label your topic sentence, but you should have one at the
beginning of each section): There were several motives for Europeans to voyage west, into the
uncharted waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the 15th century (1400s), including the desire for Asian
goods, a yearning for glory, to proselytize Christianity (spread their religion), and to provide room for
their growing population.
1. Europeans had a new found craving for Asian goods.
a. Spices, tea, sugar, silks, porcelain, gold, and other goods from China, India, and other
Eastern regions, were highly desired by Europeans.
b. These Asian goods were introduced to Europeans in the Middle East, partly due to the
Crusades. Europeans went to Jerusalem, a market with a melting pot of goods from all
over the Eastern Hemisphere.
1 (!This number in green, after the last sentence, is a
“footnote.” I highlighted some of the footnotes in the text (found after each example),
and at the bottom of the page to show you where they belong and what they look like.
Please do NOT highlight your footnotes. This was created by going to “Insert ” Footnote”
at the top of the Word doc. You can find the citation information for footnotes, including
the book author, title, and publishing information, at the bottom of the page. When you
use Chicago-style footnotes, you do not need a “Works Cited” list, because the citations
contain enough information.)
c. Trade routes were “blocked” with high taxes by Muslims in the Ottoman Empire starting
when Mehmed the II conquered Constantinople in 1453, renaming it Istanbul. Europeans
had to find new paths to Asia, and they decided to try venturing west across the Atlantic. 2
(When used a second time, directly following the same citation, instead of writing out the
complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title
or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used.
This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper. See #2 at the bottom of the page)
2. Europeans had a strong ambition for glory and sense of competition.
a. With lots of competition in Europe amongst kingdoms and families, there was a constant
desire to make families proud and expand to new lands. By conquering new territories,
men would gain not only pride, but high ranking titles for themselves and their sons, such
as Vice Admiral of the Seas.
(When the same source is used consecutively (third time and
beyond), instead of typing in the citation information for a third time, use the abbreviation for
ibidem: “Ibid.” Ibidem is a latin word that means “in the same place.” Add the page numbers
immediately following. See #3 below.) One example of this is the titles given to Columbus
and his sons by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella when for venturing across the Atlantic
Ocean and conquering territories in the Americas.
b. Another part of this ambition and competition was the idea of mercantilism. The world
was viewed as a “pie” and each nation and man wanted a bigger piece to prove
worthiness, strength, power, and God’s glory.
3. Western Christian Europeans wanted to spread the “good word.”
a. Many devout Europeans wanted to spread Christianity into new parts of the world.
“Others,” non-Christians, were deemed barbarous, pagan heathens who need to be
“corrected” and controlled. Proselytizing sometimes came gently, with the attempt at
persuasion, but when that failed, force through violence reigned.5 Examples of this include
1 Robert W Strayer, Ways of the World: A Brief Global History, 3rd ed. Vol 2 (Boston, MA: Bedford/St.Martins,
2013), 432.
2 Strayer, Ways, 433.
3 Ibid, 434.
4 Ibid, 434.
5 Ibid, 432.
the encomienda system, which enslaved the native populations and forced them to
convert, the destruction of native idols, forbidding natives from praying to and honoring
their ancestors, public floggings and processions to humiliate those who continued to
follow their own religious beliefs and traditions.
4. A demand for more land was growing.
a. Challenges in Europe, such as lack of land for sons and lack of space for growing food, such
as fields to farm and graze, led to the need to spread out to new places.
b. A growing population, coming back from disease (plague) a few hundred years earlier, also
led to a need for more land.
5. With all these motivations, Europeans also had the ability to travel across the Atlantic.
a. They had power and money. For example, Spain had just re-conquered the peninsula from
the Muslims after hundreds of years of fighting the Moors, displaying their power.7
Western Europe had a lot of money due to the spoils of winning wars and had gained
newly developed technologies, many of which came from the East, such as the compass,
triangular sail, and astrolabe, an instrument that measured latitude with the stars.
b. Lastly, the Spanish and Portuguese also had some experience in both the Atlantic ocean
and Mediterranean Sea, which gave them practice sailing in the rough waters. All these
things allowed them to travel down and across the Atlantic.
B. The Columbian Exchange had positives and negatives for people and land in both the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres.
The Columbian Exchange was the transfer of plants, animals, people, goods, diseases, and ideas from
the Old World (the Eastern Hemisphere, including Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa) to the
New World (the Western Hemisphere, the Americas). This exchange brought many positives and
horrifying, extraordinary negatives to people in both the “Old” and “New” worlds, but this greatly
depended on the social status, wealth, political power, perspective, and circumstances of each
individual. Generally speaking, however, when dealing with the repercussions of the Columbian
Exchange, Europeans were the winners and Africans and Native Americans were most often the
1. American products were introduced in Europe. Examples include corn, chocolate, tobacco,
potatoes, and tomatoes.
o Positives: This led to an increase of population in Europe and Asia, a great positive for those who
were less hungry!
o Negatives:
o This led to European addictions to things like chocolate and tobacco.
o A rough disease, syphilis, came to Europe when European conquerors had relations with
native women who had the sexually transmitted disease. In many cases, the Native
American women were raped, and perhaps this was the karmic price the rapists paid.
o Slaves were taken from the Americas and Africa. Some slaves made it to Europe,
however, millions more became European slaves on plantations in the Western
Hemisphere and were treated like chattel.
6 Ibid, 433.
7 Ibid, 422.
o The Columbian exchange was generally horrible for the environment, as weeds, bugs, and
other diseases were transferred across the globe. Additionally, forest was destroyed to
create space for farmland, higher population urban areas, and eventually mining.
o Also (side note): three hundred years later, a potato famine, due to an air-born disease
that killed Irish potatoes, led to mass starvation and emigration in 1800s. However, this
could have been prevented by the leadership, had they kept other foods available rather
than exporting them!
2. European products were brought to the Americas.
a. Food products, such as wheat, rice, cattle, pigs, and alcohol, in addition to beasts of burden,
including mules and horses, were sent to the West.
o Positives:
o The increase of food varieties led to a healthier diet with more sources of vitamins, minerals,
and calories.
o More animals meant both more forms of protein in mean and dairy, plus beads of burden
could carry, move fast, and pull plows, allowing more work to be done by fewer people and
less human muscle.
o Horses allowed for higher vantage points and faster movement. This led to better hunting
techniques, providing more meat, but also led to overhunting of other animals. Horses also
provided and also better warring for those who became skilled in riding, a more efficient
method for killing people from other tribes (positive and negative, depending on who had the
horse and skills).
o Negatives:
o This eventually led to plantation farming, with main products including cotton, sugarcane, and
tobacco. This created efficient farms, but reduced the number of small, family-run farms,
leading to a lack of independence for most people.
o This also established the need for slave or cheap labor, which meant huge wealth for the few,
and extraordinary poverty and/or slavery for the masses.
o Weeds took over indigenous plants, which was negative for the environment.
o Lastly, Native Americans were not used to drinking alcohol. In addition to being bad for health
purposes, Natives were often offered drinks by Europeans, then, when drunk, were easily
manipulated into signing contracts they did not fully understand that gave away their land.
Alcohol still has a lasting negative effect on too many Native Americans.
• With animals came many diseases, which took a devastating toll on Native American populations.
a. Strong negative: Diseases. Small pox being the most costly in life, Native Americans
also suffered from measles, influenza, and a host of other diseases. Up to 90% of
Native American populations were quickly decimated.9 Though we used Strayer
before, there is a different source used for footnote #8, so we can not use ibid. We
can use a short citation, since we used Strayer’s Ways of the World before, but still
include the author, shortened title, and page number. See #9 below.
b. Positive? Diseases were seen as a positive by Europeans, who believed God was killing
Native Americans to make room for them. They deemed Natives barbarous and
undeserving of the productive land. “…God saw fit to send the Indians smallpox and
8 Galit G. Stam, Unit 2 Lecture/PowerPoint, slide 123. **In general, use lecture/PowerPoints in your citations
only if the book does not cover this information.
9 Strayer, Ways, 434.
there was a great pestilence in the city…”10 Where as Europeans would suffer and
recover, Native Americans had no immunity to Old World diseases and died miserable,
painful deaths.
• Lastly, manufactured products, such as guns, tools, and pots went to the “Old World.” Positives
and Negatives:
c. Weapons can be considered both a negative and positive. They were a clear positive
for Europeans, as guns and steel swords allowed Europeans to easily dominate. There
is no match between a gun and a spear or even a bow and arrow. In hand-to-hand
combat, European steel swords could split American woods swords quite easily. For
Native Americans who were given weapons (perhaps traded for land or furs), they
gained an easy advantage over their enemy tribes. In general, however, European
weapons were advantageous to Europeans and a major detriment to most Native
d. Manufactured goods, such as metal cooking pots and tools made life easier on Native
Americans. They could be more efficient in the time spent cooking and working.
However, their inability to produce these types of products made Natives dependent
upon Europeans. Furthermore, indigenous culture and tradition faded with new
products, as did women’s roles, especially in making old-fashioned tools.11
• African products to Americas and vice versa:
o Very negative: 20 million slaves were stolen from homelands in Africa, only 12.5 million made
it to West Coast of Africa, and only 10 million arrived in the “New World,” the Americas.12
These African people dealt with extremely poor treatment, such as being torn from their
family, torture, humiliation, treated like chattel, branding, and rape.13 Olaudah Equiano, an
African, wrote about how he was stolen from his family at a young age, trudged across Africa
in a journey that took months, then spent weeks being tortured with smells, great fear,
hunger, and violent beatings on a boat as he was taken across the Atlantic Ocean to the
Americas where he became a slave.
14 Equiano’s is but one example, out of millions, displaying
some of the torture Africans endured by European conquerors.
o Positive and Negative: There were some positives for those receiving European goods. In
exchange for European guns and alcohol, slave merchants and kings gained more power and
# King Bonsu appreciated the slave trade, as he had too many people under his jurisdiction
due to warring, and he needed to get rid of them somehow. He preferred selling them
into slavery than killing them.
# In the mid 1700s, Ayuba Suleiman Diallo was a slave trader. Even though he was stolen
and became a slave, when he was freed, he went right back to owning people, as slave
ownership was seen as a high-ranking social status.16
10 Francisco de Aguilar, Brief Record of the Conquest of New Spain, ca. 1560. (PSD 2.3) 11 Strayer, Ways, 434. 12 Ibid, 455.
13 L.F. Labrousse, Atlantic Slave Trade, Slave Merchant in Goree Island, Senegal, 1796. Advertisement for a
Slave Auction in Charleston, South Carolina, 1769. (PSDs Unit 4) Images of Slave Branding, Lecture, Unit 4.
14 Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789. 15 Osai Bonsu, Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820, also Thomas Phillips, A Journal of a Voyage
Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694.
o Negatives:
o Most Africans suffered terribly. While a few gained more power, the Columbian Exchange had
a direct effect on causing more deaths by the violence and diseases of the Atlantic Slave Trade
and by greed, lawlessness, and warring for the masses of Africans. Enemy tribes stole other
tribes’ people to sell to Europeans for guns, rum, and steel, as described by King Affonso I.17
Also, alcoholism prevailed with the new product of alcohol, which corrupted many families.
o Because so many men were stolen, women’s roles grew in Africa outside of the home. This
allowed some women to become quite successful, which can be considered a positive.
However, this also left women with too many jobs, families without fathers or husbands, and
polygamy prevailed with the lack of men.18
# Continued Negative:
o There are still several horrible repercussions from these nasty 300 years, with racism and
major challenges for descendants of former slaves. In the United States, for example,
according to Halstead’s article, which links to several other sources with statistics, “police act
like Black lives do not matter when they shoot unarmed Black people with their arms in the
air and when Blacks are shot at two and a half times the rate of whites… [and] when Blacks
are given more severe sentences than whites who commit the same crimes…”19
Concluding paragraph should summarize (NOT restate) the main points and provide a new
overarching statement that proves the thesis (answers the question). New specific examples can be
introduced, but NO new themes.
***This example answers a really big question (a few questions, actually). This outline is NOT
complete. MANY more specific examples and citations should be added to fully answer the questions
in a thorough argument.
Reminders: In addition to your introductory section which includes a Thesis Statement that answer
the question and the “5Ws” (who, what, where, when, why) and How, etc., all following sections
• A topic sentence that introduces the ONE part of the question you will answer in that section.
• Specific EXAMPLES with citations from the primary sources or textbook (or lecture/PowerPoint if
o See the “How to Cite Your Sources” doc. The citations here from Strayer and Ways of the
World might not be accurate page numbers, because you should find those.
• ANALYSIS to connect the examples to your argument (prove your point).
16 Strayer, Ways, To Slavery and Back, 630.
17 King Affonso I, Letters to King Jao of Portugal, 1526.
18 Strayer, Ways, 632.
19 John Halstead, The Real Reason White People Say ‘All Lives Matter,’ 2016.

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