Hydrogen as Plant Macronutrient Paper

Plants require several elements as nutrients for their overall growth and survival, which are called essential elements. These essential elements can be either macro nutrients, obtained mostly from air and water, required in larger amounts,or micro nutrients, required in smaller amounts. Hydrogen is one of the seventeen essential elements required by plants for their growth. It is one of the primary elements used by the plants acting as building blocks for the growth of the plants like seed germination and root formation.

Macro nutrients play a crucial role in the growth and development of plants. They help in increasing the quality, yield, and growth of the crops. Hydrogen is one of the very important macro nutrients required by plants. Plants obtain hydrogen from water molecules during photosynthesis by splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen. During photosynthesis, this hydrogen gets used up in various processes in the plants whereas, the oxygen is released into the atmosphere. Hydrogen is present in abundance in nature and gets limited rarely. Hydrogen is having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects on cells and tissues of plants against oxidative injury, thus acting as a very important bio active factor. Hydrogen is found to have protective roles in the seeds, fruits, seedlings, and explants when treated with hydrogen rich-water.

Role of hydrogen in controlling pests and diseases:
It has been seen that water rich in hydrogen is capable of controlling pests and diseases, accelerating the growth of the crop plants resulting in higher yield. Thus it may prove to be beneficial by reducing the usage of chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides.

It will be helpful in the long run as it would reduce the damage to the environment due to pollution of water bodies by surface runoff from fields, thus improving the land and water ecosystem, protecting soil degradation, and the safety of food.

Role of hydrogen in ROS metabolism:
Hydrogen can act as a signaling molecule as well as an antioxidant in plants protecting them from various environmental stresses.

Reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (OHOH), and super oxides (O2O2),that are formed in the plants are detoxified by hydrogen from time to time and maintain homeostasis. Hydrogen playsan important role in plant growth and development and its adaptation to stress.

In the plant biological system, two very toxic reactive oxygen species are found. They are OHOH- and ONOOONOO-. Hydrogen protects the plants from toxicity by selectively reducing both of these ions. This alleviates oxidative damage in plants and helps in delaying senescence.

Other roles of hydrogen in plants:
Hydrogen is found to be involved in the signal transduction pathways of various plant hormones.

It also protects the plants from abiotic stresses such as salinity, low temperature, high light, and drought, which may decrease the crop yield or even cause death. Hydrogen is found to be involved in increasing the resistance of crop plants against these stresses, thus protecting them from diseases.

Hydrogen-rich water is also known to delay ripening after harvesting and help in increasing the shelf life of fruits and crops.

Hydrogen is also involved in the formation of adventitious root and stomatal closure, by modulating homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Hydrogen is also found to be involved in the expression of genes of receptor proteins of various plant hormones such as cytokinin, ethylene, and salicylic acid or hormones affecting disease resistance.

Hydrogen helps the plants in achieving proton gradient, which in turn is used for driving the electron transport chain and the process of respiration.

It also helps in the production of sugars for providing energy to the plants. Sugars such as glucose contain hydrogen atoms, which gets incorporated into various other organic compounds by several processes. Bio molecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, all contain hydrogen in their chemical structure.

Soilless cultivation of crops can be implemented by using hydrogen-rich water, as found by field trials. It also affects the nutritional value and the taste of food so derived, in a positive way.

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