Impacts of C Terminal End of Amino Acid Paper

The amino acids are responsible for the production of protein.The amino acid is made up of two ends and one functional group. The two ends are named as the amine end and carboxyl end. This also refers to the free alpha-amino group is present at one end and the free alpha carboxyl group present at another end. The peptide sequenced can by starting with the N terminal to the C terminal. The C terminal consists of the signal by the ER retention signal. This signal in C terminus stops the protein to enter into the secondary pathways. Some carboxy terminus is modified. The C terminal may identify by the chromatographic procedures and determine by the enzymes.

Amino acid
The building blocks of protein are referring to the amino acid. They are 20 amino acid that is an essential amino acid and non-essential amino acid. Essential amino acids can make by the diet and non-essential amino acids make by the cells. These are to make the long peptides called the polypeptide chain. The structure of amino acids contains a common basic structure. The carbon atom is present in the center of the amino acid which is attached to the four groups in the amino acid. The hydrogen groups are present in amino acid and attached to the carbon. The other group is named the functional group which represents by the R group. This is also attached to the carbon atom. Other groups are amino groups and carboxyl groups. These groups are attached to the carbon atom and these are situated in the ends in the amino acids. The amino acid will show the mirror image forms such as D form and L form.

The protein is made by the amino acid. The amino acid has two ends and an organic group in its structure. The alpha-amino group (-NH2−NH2) in one end and alpha carboxyl group (-COOH−COOH) in another end and R is the organic group. The amino acid structure is represented in the horizontal direction, the C- terminal present on the right and the N terminal present on the left.This linkage of amino acids can represent the amide bond or peptide bong which forms the polypeptide chain. The polypeptide chains also contain an end of an unbound C terminal end and another end of unbound the polypeptide sequence of amino acids starting with the N terminal or amino-terminal residue to the C terminal or carboxyl-terminal residue. The sequences from carboxyl-terminal to amino-terminal are trans in nature. During the protein translation from the mRNA, the C- terminal and N- terminal is formed.

Carboxyl end:
The signal for retention can consist in the C- terminal for the protein sequence arrangements. The endoplasmic reticulum retention of a signal is an amino acid located at the carboxyl terminus. It retained the protein present in the endoplasmic reticulum and plays to stop these proteins to enter the secondary pathway. The carboxyl terminus will be changing in some modifications. For instance, prenylation is one form of modification. Prenylation is defined as the addition of hydrophobic molecules (like fat) to the protein or the chemical compound. When this prenylation occur, the farnesyl or geranylgeranyl-isoprenoid membrane is added with the cysteine near C- terminus. The enzyme carboxy peptidase or a chemical reagent is used to determine the C- terminal. The chromatographic helps to identify the C terminus. The enzyme carboxy peptidase is referred to as an exopeptidase in which the Carboxyl terminal amino acid is released and the C terminal peptide bond is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carboxy peptidase. The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) keys a very essential role in splicing, capping.

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