Succession is a systemic phenomenon in which, due to naturally occurring events or even human action, the distribution of organisms varies. Originally, succession was characterized by plant ecologists who concentrated on flora adjustment. Succession is the result of mutual changes in the nature of multiple kingdoms in the group (animals, insects, fungi, protists, and bacteria). The physical change in the makeup of the population is not only a certain phase at that stage of the population, but is known to be a common result of organisms engaging with various techniques of life history (Morin 2011). The prominent ecologists Fredrick Clements and Henry Gleason had two very opposite views. Clements believed that super organisms were similar to ecological populations where associations between multiple species boost a clear pattern between population evolution. He sees super organisms as a central aspect of the web of life, and changes in the whole population can occur repeatedly. He also compared primary succession with embryonic growth and healed species with secondary succession.
Gleasonâ€™s theory was recognized as individualistic, a group of organisms with common criteria for physical and chemical niches. Gleason takes into account the patterns and how each animal responds to biotic and abiotic factors individualistically. He also proposed that a species ‘early arrivals appear to dominate a site and they could impede the later arrivals’ survival. They are known as rivals and therefore exclude the new species until their own type occupies the specific field. This indicates that classes can be made up of organisms of the same genus, as well as cultures. The view on individualistic group evolution was nothing more than just the assemblages of organisms to enable them to use those positions in their biology requirements. Individualistic is a species-scale situation when the tolerance of the individual of dissimilar species varies from the local environment conditions.
Individualistic view defined a better explanation of the growth of vegetation succession. For example, the Rhizopus spores. If the climate itself is favorable to life, the Rhizopus spore evolves well and reproduces without relying on another individual. This basically means that a plant needs a proper atmosphere for its regular activities and functions to be carried out. The changes in the setting affect these output variations in function and even the morphological composition of the plants. Each plant has the potential to survive in various environmental states of different kinds. In his individualistic idea of plant association, earlier Gleason (1939) proposed that an association is a complex of minor anomalies, all of which combine into a totality of obvious homogeneity. It is uniform either in space or in time, which only to a reasonable degree has definite area limits.
Interspecific interactions in biology relate to the ways in which organisms in their group interact. In an evolutionary environment, several forms of associations arise and affect population dynamics. There are a few examples of experiences of these kinds:
Mutualism: Cooperation favors all organisms, such as bacteria in the gut that accelerate digestion (+ /+).
Commensalism: One species profits, such as a spider weaving a web on a plant (+ /0), without harming the other.
Parasitism: One species profits, however, like pathogenic bacteria (+ /-), the other is affected.
Predation: For life, one species preys upon the other (+ /-).
Competition: For scarce capital, two animals battle (-/-).
The Individualistic Idea in Plant Community
Gleason noted that many of the methods used in the study of plant communities relied on the presumption of vegetational uniformity. He recognized that there was a certain impact on the environmental circumstances faced by the subordinate species by the dominant species of any given association. Therefore, subordinate species in the entire region of a given group of dominants will appear to be quite identical. To impose consistent species composition over large areas of an association, the environmental protection of the dominants was not necessary by itself.
Gleason argued that when one analyzed the plants in the region, one did also find that, in terms of the distribution of the species or the relative numbers of each species, no two areas were alike. He had researched the beech-maple forest around Douglas Lake and found constant variance between locations. In comparison, to the beech-maple forest of Southern Michigan, 500 km away, even greater variations are found. Particularly within a vegetation type as seemingly definite and homogeneous as the beech-maple trees, variety was constant.
Gleason also found it convenient and valid to use the word â€˜associationâ€™ to apply to vegetational characteristics such as the beech-maple trees. Areas of similar climate, whether continuous or detached, are therefore inhabited by similar assemblages of species in the same restricted zone, that is, with the same surrounding population. This assemblage is called a plant association. But species assemblages have not been definitive, coordinated bodies. Instead, they represented â€œjust coincidenceâ€.
Based on this individualistic view, Gleasonâ€™s was a strong critique of the homology that Clements had made between the plant population and the individual organism. Gleason found out that the latter stages of the growth of a plant community did not spring from within its immature phases endogenously. Rather, they were the result of the invasion of a new member species.
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