When insulin is present it stimulates the incorporation of the acetate into fatty acid, however this process is inhibited by glucagon. Both the hormones in the body are directly associated in influencing the fatty acid synthesis from acetate. Glucagon inhibits the formation of malonyl-CoA and eventually allows the de noto synthesis of fatty acids. After the formation of fatty acids a process called re-esterification functions to store triglycerides and is eventually released from hepatocytes as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Insulin functions to promote the synthesis of fatty acids inside the liver. The lipoproteins present in the bloodstream are taken and provided as free fatty acids for their use in other tissues, which involves adipocytes or fat-storing cells. These cells serve the purpose of synthesizing triglycerides.
Among steroid and peptide hormones, insulin is a peptide hormone that is referred to as an anabolic hormone of the body as it is responsible for synthesizing actions of many biomolecules. The hormone participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats by stimulating the absorption of glucose from the circulation and then storing it in the organs like skeletal muscle cells and liver. Insulin participates in increasing the rate of fat synthesis. It forces the fat cells to take in blood glucose that is converted into triglycerides, and the decrease in the level of insulin results in an opposite reaction producing glucose. The insulin hormone also results in the increased esterification of fatty acids, i.e., combining organic acid with alcohol to make ester. Insulin forces the adipocytes or adipose tissue cells to form neutral fats called triglycerides from fatty acids. The hormone is also linked with decreasing the rate of lipolysis that results in the conversion of lipids in fat cells into fatty acids and glycerol and releases them in blood circulation
Glucan, a peptide hormone, is released by the alpha cells of the islets of pancreas. These islets constitute an endocrine portion of the pancreas. The glucagon functions to elevate the blood glucose level and promotes gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to promote the release of glucose inside the body. This hormone works in the opposite fashion to insulin and is the catabolic hormone of the body as it participates in breaking down macromolecules into simpler components. Glucagon has also used medication for treating several metabolic health disorders. The secretion of glucagon is influenced by several conditions and hormones like hypoglycemia, epinephrine, alanine, acetylcholine, gastric inhibitory peptidase, and so on. Glucagon is known to decrease the fatty acid synthesis inside the adipocytes and also inside the liver. The hormone contributes to eliciting lipolysis, which causes them to produce and release fatty acids inside the bloodstream. The fatty acids, thus, released catabolize to produce energy inside the tissues like the skeletal tissues when such energy production is required.
Glucagon and insulin not only affect the synthesis or breakdown of fatty acids, but they are also regulated by fatty acids present inside the body. Fatty acids stimulate the secretion of glucagon and increase the accumulation of triglycerides; however, they inhibit the proliferation of alpha cells; the lower concentrations of fatty acids increase glucagon secretion but do not affect the content of triglycerides.
Effect of fatty acids on insulin
Obesity is a disorder that is marked by the accumulation of free fatty acids inside the adipose tissues that can result in an increase in peripheral muscle insulin resistance. This is because fatty acids can result in inhibition of uptake of glucose by the action of insulin and also inhibit glycogen synthesis. High consumption of saturated fatty acids like palmitate that is found in food items like eggs, meat, dairy, and so on are linked to insulin resistance. In contrast, the high input of unsaturated fats decreases such risk. The monounsaturated fatty acids can, in return, increase insulin sensitivity when compared t other types of unsaturated fatty acids.
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