To reduce the effects of dangerous air pollutants produced by different harmful industries, federal control technology requires MACT. There is a misunderstanding that the control technology is extravagant discharge control devices such as thermal-oxidizers, bio-filters, and scrubbers. Still, it is referred to the methods, measures, systems, or techniques used to limit the discharge of harmful air pollutants. MACT limits discharge by already control practices or technology used on major sources for removing toxic pollutants.
To regulate the discharge of hazardous air pollutants, it is necessary to first know about the sources releasing them. Then, standards should be issued for the categories listed in a publication by the EPA. Therefore, the EPA proposes a schedule for listed standards for every category.
Both new as well as existing sources are covered under regulations. Sources that can discharge ten or more tons of any one of HAPs or a combination of HAPs that totals twenty-five tons or more every year are major sources. A source that discharges HAPs but not to the extent of major sources is called an area source.
Standards of MACT are supposed to be met by main new sources. The EPA fixes the actual discharge controlled by the best source in most MACT.
As compared to existing major sources, MACT standards may be more rigid in new sources. For example, at least 30 sources in categories or subcategories are as rigid as 12% of existing sources performing best and getting average discharge limit. Conversely, less than 30 sources in categories are as rigid as the five best performing sources getting an average discharge limit.
Generally, there is one submission schedule of each standard to go along for existing sources with a maximum of three years. Under the Early Reductions Program, levels achieved in 1987 for discharge are reduced by 90% before increasing the time of submission by 6 years. Before the standard proposal, a source requiring extension under the Early Reductions Program must be extended.
Discharge of HAPs is limited by MACT or for the control of discharge, MACT is a technology requirement. Effects of bad quality air considerations EPA must consider, i.e., cost, environment or health effects, and energy consumption.
Regulating Area Sources
Under Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA is required to find out at least 30 HAPs that are a great threat to public health in urban areas, find out the source categories that discharge HAPs up to 90%, and create a plan to reduce risks from those sources. There are many sources in the area source categories such as degreasing operations, dry cleaners, and chrome platers.
The plan for area sources by EPA must reduce cancer chances by these sources up to 75%. Under the Early Reductions Program, before the extension in time by 6 years to meet the standard, the area sources with the major sources have reduced discharge by 90%.
Implementing HAPs Regulations
The device for implementing HAPs regulations is the operating permit program under the Clean Air Act Amendments.
Part seventy operating permits are to be obtained by the major sources of HAPs. Although part seventy permit is required by some sources yet state operating permits are required to be obtained by most of the area sources of HAPs. MACT can obtain a registration or capped permit in some sources subject to an area source.
For the federal permitting program and to go for EPA authority, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. (MPCA) have made rules to manage these in Minnesota. With the approval of MPCA, the major sources’ MACT standards are enforced, except that there is no authority of MPCA on area sources MACT standards.
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