The developmental switch works based on a modular fashion in which the switch activation leads to the expression of differences in genes in a coordinated fashion. The genes that are involved in both regulatory mechanism and new phenotype production undergoes continuous developmental switch.
The developmental switch integrates the variations in environment and differences in individual genes. The different individuals have a different threshold that switches between aggressive and non-aggressive phenotypes.
The developmental switch resembles a sensitive period during which an organismâ€™s response to the environmental input is maximum. The difference is that the environmental and the genetic inputs merge with this regulatory mechanism amplifying both genetic and environmental effects on the phenotype.
The induction of developmental switch displays new resources of gene variation where the genes involved in certain regulatory mechanisms with the expression of new phenotypes.
The adaptive plasticity:
Adaptive plasticity gets evolved when environmental cues found reliable in which the environment varies. The selection of plasticity is very strong. The traits that are genetically fixed get varied that cannot be predicted.
Monitoring of environmental changes through plasticity is attained by the absence or presence of genetic differentiation. The phenotypic traits with more plasticity evolve like other traits (quantitative) by the process of natural selection act upon genetic variation among the genotypes.
The genotypes differ based on the biological reactions and the level of response of phenotypic plasticity in different environments.
The developmental plasticity in nematodes:
The developmental switch generally facilitates the diversity of phenotypic characters. Yet, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. For example the feeding mechanism of a nematode Pristionchus in which the mouth forms of nematode are displayed after a developmental decision that is irreversible.
The nematode was found to possess a plasticity regulator called eud-1 that functions in the developmental switch. The eud-1 mutations remove one of the two mouth forms and the up-regulation of eud-1 fixes the mutation.
The eud-1 is a sulfatase gene that is essential for the control of sexual dimorphism in feeding forms of nematodes having a conserved function in the evolution of Pristionchus.
Hence the eud-1 exhibits a developmental switch that is responsible for the morphological plasticity in the adult stage of nematode which indicates the regulatory molecular pathways are evolving by the terminal addition of certain new genes.
Role of the developmental switch in microglial cell function:
The microglial cells are the macrophages found in the spinal cord and brain. These cells are very important in the development of cell, disease, and health management. The microglial cells play their role in conferring host defense mechanisms. The enzyme histone deacetylases (HDAC1 and HDAC2) are very important regulators in the maturation of microglial cells. The deletion of hdac1 and hdac2 in the microglia before birth impairs the number of microglial cells with no positive effect on the organism.
The loss of hdac-2 decreases the amyloid problem that improves the developmental switch for the requirement of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in the microglial cells. Depletion of these proteins is very detrimental at the time of development, but it is very beneficial in bypassing the process of neurodegeneration.
The deletion of hdac1 and hdac2i from the animal models developed Alzheimer’s disease has shown a reduced burden of amyloid plaque with an increase in amyloid co-localization and was found to rescues the cognitive defects.
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