Analysis of Molecular Phylogeny
Pair of homologous sequences are required for the analysis of molecular phylogeny. This similarity in the molecular sequence is known as molecular homology and it is based on the sequences taken from a similar ancestor. There are three different types of molecular homology which are based on mechanisms separating their daughter sequences-
a) Orthologous Genes
b) Paralogous Genes
c) Xenologous Genes.
a)Orthologous genes- The molecular sequences already present in the ancestors are carried to the new species through the process of speciation.
b) Paralogous genes-These types of genes are present in the same genome as duplicates and they create confusion while constructing the molecular phylogenetic so they must be avoided.
c) Xenologous genes-This type of genes arises because of the horizontal gene transfer among two species, so they must also be avoided.
Molecular Phylogenetic Treeâ€”Molecular Markers
DNA is considered to be the best for the study of molecular characters and widely accepted for the construction of phylogenetic trees. The sequences of DNA exist only as cytosine, adenine, thymine, and guanine and are in a clear state as compared to the morphological characters. This is the only reason for the use of DNA in constructing a phylogenetic tree. In Ribosomes, there are two subunits- Large and small subunits. Small subunit (SSU) is considered to be the most powerful marker for building phylogenetic trees as it contains Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) which is used to study molecular characters. This small subunit is 16S rDNA sequences for prokaryotes and 18S rDNA for eukaryotes. Advantages of SSU as a molecular marker:
It is a primitive molecule that evolved during the primitive stages of life.
It codes for the molecules needed for the survival of organisms.
Transferable and has very less chances of mutations.
(V1-V9) are different variable regions and has more similarities of conserved blocks. This becomes convenient for oligonucleotide primers to amplify a piece of SSU- DNA to test a diversity of sequences.
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