The human activities that influences the rise in the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere leading to climate change or global atmospheric warming. Hence, nearly a quarter of the produced carbon dioxide by human activities is absorbed by the ocean. In other ways, absorption by the ocean can be helpful for the reduction of global warming but directly, it is affecting aquatic lives. The carbon dioxide can be produced by the deforestation and burning of fossil fuels which eventually increase the chemical effects in the seawater, and this effect is called ocean acidification.
Gene expression and its effects:
The acidity of the ocean water is resulted from the dissolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean. This elevated the acidity of the aquatic environment inhibits the survival of the marine animals. But in most cases of marine animals having some undefined molecular mechanism that facilitates them to form a calcium carbonate skeleton around their body which significantly allows them to inhabit the low pH level environment. This also makes the marine animals resistant to the acidic pH of the aquatic environment. Some studies show that the transcriptomic responses of the gene expression of calcifying species provide them tolerance for increased pH. Their mechanism for increased pH tolerance is still not studied well but results show that these calcifying species can adjust their skeletogenic pathways for maintaining their calcification in the low pH level of the ocean. Such species also have a different mechanism to survive in the pH stress. They can eventually initiate the transcriptional responses and enhance the ability to cope with the increased pH stress. But not all the species have this ability of tolerance. The ocean acidification may cause a change in their gene expression and affect their survival.
Effects of ocean acidification:
The many areas of the ocean are richly filled with the minerals of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is considered as very essential for the survival of marine animals. Thus, the ocean acidification increases the acidity of the seawater and gradually decreases the carbonate level. Hence this leads to a change in their gene expression and causes a reduction in their tolerance power for pH stress. The diatoms, corals, and bivalves are mostly affected due to a reduction in the carbonate level in ocean water. They significantly provide food for aquatic organisms like small fishes. The ocean acidification makes them intolerant against the increased acidity and enables them to form their carbonate protective shells. Similarly, bivalves like oysters, scallops, mussels, and clams need calcium carbonate to form their shells. The less carbonate present in the marine environment causes a reduction in the capability of the bivalves to synthesize and eventually maintain their shells. The ocean acidification may also dissolve or weaken the bivalves existing shells that leads to an increase in their vulnerability and chances of being eaten by the predators. The species of corals are also affected by the increased acidification of the aquatic environment as they built their colony with calcium carbonate. Corals also allow the habitat of any other organisms by forming a complex reef from the calcium carbonate. These coral reefs are destroying due to the increase in the temperature of the seawater. The growth of the corals and the skeleton of the existing coral are both affected by ocean acidification. The new corals donâ€™t survive due to a lack of new skeletons and the existing coral skeletons get dissolved making them vulnerable to erosion. The ocean acidification also affects the fishes and contaminates the other life forms of the marine environment. This causes the disorders related to reproduction in the fishes.
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