Research designs and randomization

DNP-816: Analysis & Applic of Health Data for ANP


1. Which of the following research designs includes both an intervention and randomization?

Group of answer choices

Grounded theory research

Non-experimental research

Time series design

Experimental research




2. What is the initial question the researcher should ask when selecting a research design for a particular study?

Group of answer choices

What is the norm in the research topic area?

What type of data analysis techniques will be used?

What instruments will be used to measure the variables in the study?

What is the primary purpose of the study?



3. Which of the following research questions is the appropriate question for a correlational research design?

Group of answer choices

What is the experience of women with hyperthyroidism and resolution of sypmtoms after treatment?

What is the relationship between amount of exercise/week and arthralgia in women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer who are being treated with an aromatase inhibitor?

What is the prevalence of heroin addiction amongst adults ages 18-45 in the Greater Cincinnati region?

In patients undergoing a total hip arthroplasty, which of the following treatments is most effective in the decolonization of MRSA: preoperative povidone iodine or posteroperative mupirocin?



4. Match the types of quantitative research listed below with the sample study titles.

Group of answer choices

Descriptive research


Correlational research


Quasi-experimental research


Experimental research




5. Bias is a term used to indicate that data in a study are being distorted or slanted away from reality by some influencing factor. Which of the following is true about bias in research?

Group of answer choices

Instruments that are valid for measuring the identified variables are a source of bias.

The researcher can not be a source of bias in a study because he/she is in control

Preconcieved ideas about what the finding of a study will be may lead to bias in intrepreting data.

It is the same as manipulation because the researcher determines the treatment to be given.




6. Manipulation is a term used in quasi and experimental research to mean:

Group of answer choices

An underhanded strategy designed to make subject behave as the researcher wants them to.

Controlling the environment in which the research takes place

An intervention or treatment introduced by the researcher to assess its impact on the dependent variable.

The ability of the researcher to be able to handle or use the equpiment needed to collect data in the study



7. We do not know whether the pattern of results found in our samples accurately reflects what is happening in the population or if it is the result of what type of error?

Group of answer choices







8. Extraneous variables may be controlled by:

Group of answer choices

Using a natural clinical setting

Selecting individuals that are relatively alike in relation to variables that might affect the outcome

Measuring the extraneous variable

Selecting only those subjects who do not have the extraneous variable



9. An increasing degree of control is needed as studies move from descriptive or correlational to experimental designs. Which of the following is true about control?

Group of answer choices

Sample selection is not included as part of the control in a research study

Degree of control will not influence results of a descriptive or correlational studies.

Control is needed to reduce the effects of confounding or extraneous variables on the variables being studied.

Increasing control and rigor in a study ensures that outcomes will be as the researcher predicts



10. In a research study, participants’ knowledge of the study or of being in a study may change their behavior in such a way that the findings of the study are altered. This problem is called the:

Group of answer choices

Hawthorne effect

Halo effect

History effect

Rosenthal effect



11. Brusser and Janosy wanted to test the effectiveness of a new relaxation/biofeedback intervention on menopausal symptoms. They invited women who presented themselves in an outpatient clinic with complaints of severe hot flashes to participate in the study of the experimental treatment. These 50 women were asked to record, every day for 3 weeks before the intervention, the frequency and duration of their hot flashes. The intervention itself involved five 1-hour sessions over a period of 1 week. Then, for the 3 weeks after the treatment, the women were asked to record their hot flashes again every day. At the end of the study, Brusser and Janosy found that both the frequency and average duration of the hot flashes had been significantly reduced in this sample of 50 women. They concluded that their intervention was an effective therapy in treating menopausal hot flashes.   What is the independent variable in this study?

Group of answer choices

Relaxation/bio feedback

Hot flashes

Menopausal symptoms

Tracking of the hot flashes



12. In an experiment on the effect of sleep on memory, the independent variable is

Group of answer choices

Number of hours of sleep

Recall score on a memory test

How many words the participant can remember in 5 minutes

Gender of the subjects



13. Brady hypothesized that inadequate social support among the elderly results in a high level of chronic health problems and low morale. She tested this hypothesis by interviewing a sample of 250 residents of a community who were aged 65 years and older. The participants were randomly selected from a list of town residents. Brady asked a series of questions about the availability of socioemotional supports (e.g., whether the participants lived with any kin, whether they had any living children who resided within 30 minutes away, whether they belonged to any clubs or social groups). Based on responses to the various questions on social support, participants were classified in one of three groups: low social support, moderate social support, and high social support. In a 6-month follow-up interview, Brady collected information from 214 of the participants about the frequency, type, and intensity of the respondents illnesses in the preceding 6 months, hospitalizations during that period, and their overall satisfaction with life. The data analysis revealed that participants in the low-support group had significantly more health problems and hospitalizations and lower life satisfaction ratings than those in the other two groups. Brady concluded that the availability of social supports resulted in better physical health and emotional adjustment in the elderly.   What is the dependent variable in this study?

Group of answer choices

Family involvement

Club membership

Health problems, satisfaction with life

Amount of social support



14. Which type of sampling is useful for a study that covers a large geographic area?

Group of answer choices


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