Amphibians are animals that predominantly live in water and sometimes they live on land. Based on the above-mentioned osmatic pressure principle the concentration of water and salt is maintained similar to fishes.
Salt gets passed through the glomerulus filtration process in the kidney and gets excreted along with the urine, while nitrogen is released in the form of urea
Amphibians inland due to their lack of water intake mostly secrete urine in a concentrated volume. However, when they adapt to the freshwater environment due to the permeability of the skin an increased amount of water enters the body due to osmotic pressure, which causes excretion of urine in an increased diluted form. Also its gall bladder stores some amount of urine for the organism to rely on in the land.
The amphibians to conserve water undergo numerous physiological changes when they again opt to live in the land. Restriction of blood flow to the glomerular filtration and the release of the hormone antidiuretic reduces or restricts the function of the glomerular filter thus urine gets excreted only in a concentrated volume. The stored water along with the other salts is conserved to use in the land. Reabsorption of the urine by the body is also done by the antidiuretic hormone.
The kidney is the primary excretion organ of the fish. In addition to it the digestive tract, gills, and skin also play a key role in the excretion of salt from the fishes.
The freshwater fishes rely on and uptake only a small amount of water. However, a constant random uptake of salt by freshwater fishes through special cells present in gills, skin against the concentration gradient of the osmatic pressure in the form of water takes place. Thus to tackle this a large amount of water is also excreted by the freshwater fishes in the form of urine.
In contrast, the marine fishes conserve salt and survive in the presence of increased water volume thus constant water and salt balance is maintained in the system by excreting only a small amount of urine with the other dissolved salts. While an increased amount of water is conserved. The gills secrete the nitrogenous wastes in the form of ammonia through a specialized cell.
The fishes alter their physiological conditions easily in an intermediate brackish water environment when they need to travel between the fresh and marine water environments.
Certain marine fishes to maintain a constant osmotic pressure do not drink water or perform any other function when its concentration is equal to the surrounding water concentration. Example: hagfishes, rays, and sharks.
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