Sex Organ Determination in Animal Development

The reproductive system is a genital system that involves several structures. The reproductive system is important for sexual reproduction. There are mainly two sexes (male and female) in the organism but other kinds such as hermaphrodite are also occur. Environmental action, genetics, and hormonal changes play important factors in sex determination and differentiation. Genetics is the prime reason for sex determination and factors play afterward. Gene plays an important role in the development of sexual phenotype. The presence of a specific chromosome makes it possible to express a specific gene that governs sex organ determination. The sex determination can be primary or secondary. The former is the determination of sex organs or gonads whereas, the latter is the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Primary sex determination is based on gene expression and hence depends on the presence of a specific chromosome. The secondary sex determination is the phenotypic development of sexual characteristics under hormonal actions. Secondary sexual development occurs during adolescence. It separates both sexes and promotes sexual appearance and fitness.

Generally, the female has two same-sex chromosomes (XX) and the male has two different sex chromosomes (XY). The presence of the X chromosome is common in both males and females. The Y is strictly present in male-only.

The female produces two gametes (ovum), both are the same type and each contains an X chromosome. But male produces two different types of gametes (sperm) in which one contain an X chromosome and other contain a Y chromosome.

When male and female gamete fertilizes forms a zygote that develops to form embryo and fetus. The union of the X-chromosome of the mother and the X chromosome of the father produces an individual having two XX sex chromosomes and the child is female.

The female develops ovaries. In contrast, the union of the X chromosome from mother and Y chromosome father produce individual having XY sex chromosome and the child is male. The male develops testes.

The presence of the Y chromosome in mammals makes the baby male because it carries the gene for a testis-determining factor. In mammals, if a child bears XXXXY in the cell it would be a male child. In contrast, if a child contains only one X chromosome and no second X chromosome or Y chromosome then the child would be a female child.

Different Genes are Involved in Sex Organ Development in Male and Female
The genital ridge is the somatic cell that is the precursor of gonads in both sexes. It has great potential to form sex organs. It is a single primordium for organ formation which marks the initiation of sex organ development. It can either forms testes or ovaries depending on the type of gene expression.

The absence of the Y chromosome makes the gonadal primordia develop into ovaries.

The expression of genes LHX9 (LIM homeobox 9), SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1), and WT1 (Wilms’ tumor protein 1) is required for the genital ridge to convert into the bipotential gonad.

The bipotential gonad can convert into either a female sex organ or a male sex organ. The DAX1 and WNT4a genes convert the genital ridge into the ovary. The ovary has follicular cells and theca cells that produce estrogen.

The Mullerian duct forms female internal genitalia such as the uterus, oviduct, cervix, and upper vagina. The Wolffian duct degenerates in the female. The SRY (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome) and SOX9 gene convert the bipotential gonad into testes.

Testes have Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in which the expression of the SFI gene occurs. The Sertoli cells produce anti-Mullerian duct hormone that causes regression of the Mullerian duct. The testosterone is converted into the dihydrotestosterone hormone forms the penis and prostate.

Wolffian duct under the influence of testosterone forms male internal genitalia such as epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle. Testosterone inhibits the development of breast primordia.


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Sex Organ Determination in Animal Development

Despite the concentration of economic power brought about by the industrial revolution, the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was generally ineffective in preventing the establishment of monopolies and regulating trade barriers. The Federal Trade Commission Act has been passed since then. The FTC was established to encourage free and fair competition in interstate commerce while also protecting consumers against misleading advertising.

The FTC has Strengthened Consumer Protections
Its authority was weakened in its early years due to congressional opposition and court decisions. It was only after the passage of the Wheeler-Lea Amendment in 1938 that it improved its consumer protection mandate.

Following Ralph Nader’s report in 1969, criticizing many of the commission’s policies, the commission was reactivated after President Richard Nixon requested that an American Bar Association committee investigate the commission further. FTC was re-energized with new consumer activists after incorporating recommendations from the committee into improving operations.

A federal Appeals Court has ruled that the First Amendment does not Prohibit Economic Regulation
image

With FTC regulation and First Amendment rights, lawyers in the District of Columbia decided to stop representing indigent defendants until they were paid more FTC filed suit against them.

They got what they wanted out of Washington but were accused of conspiring for price-fixing and a boycott that violated the Federal Trade Commission Act’s provisions on fair competition by the FTC. Despite the fact that an Administrative Law Judge dismissed the case, the FTC found the boycott to be illegal and issued an agency order prohibiting it from happening again.

The FTC’s Regulations Balance Advertisement Regulation and First Amendment rights
As part of its mandate, the FTC continues to investigate and prosecute cases. People, interest groups, the media, and businesses bring issues to the commission’s attention through research undertaken by the agency and complaints from citizens, interest organizations, the media, and businesses. Finding a balance between the agency’s regulation of inaccurate or misleading advertisements and the First Amendment’s protection of free expression has been one of the agency’s most difficult tasks.


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Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

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How our Assignment  Help Service Works

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You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

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The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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