Over 35 years ago Zimmerman pointed to the extraordinary Hawaiian biodiversity and challenged genetics and evolutionary biologists to illustrate the evidence that around 25 per cent of the organisms in the Drosophila genus were prevalent to the six key islands in the Hawaiian archipelago. The total area of these volcanic islands (only 16,576 km2), their relative isolation, their geophysical youth, is completely unequal for the recognition of this community in Hawaii by some one thousand species. About thirty-five years before Zimmerman issued a challenge to evolutionists and geneticists for the explanation of endemism of drosophila species to the Hawaiian archipelago six major islands. Among all the species of genus drosophila, twenty-five percent species is present on this island. The key methods Carson took to his evolutionary research are the physiology as well as taxonomy of the flies, the characteristics, the cytology including interior anatomy and the ecosystems for explanations of these large drosophilids, which were originally based upon karyotype tests and polytene chromosome banding arrangement analysis.
This Hawaiian native flies are quite varied in morphological features. Adult measurements range from small to huge in species (wing width ranges from 2 cm to 2 cm), and males exhibit odd mouth, head including leg variations. These resulting sexual characteristics contribute to strikingly unique male messaging and courtship behaviour.
Taxonomic classification of Hawaiian drosophilids:
From a taxonomic point of view, Hawaiian drosophilids consist of two main genera, and Drosophila and Scaptomyza, which has several subgenera, which is largely represented by the subgenus Drosophila. It is a central component of Drosophila endemics and is classified into two essential categories – the non- print -winged fly flies – and the printed flying flies, which are highly pigmented in wings. In each of these clusters, based on certain morphological characteristics of males several groups of species were identified, such or as the proboscis (modified mouthparts) and modifications of the legs (modified tarsi). Based on more specific traits, these groups are further subdivided into species subset such as a modified male foot type or a specific set of polytene chromosome inversions.
Genetic classification of Hawaiian drosophilids:
Hawaiian genetic variations in drosophilicity are small and, considering these complex features, are cytologically restrictive, demonstrating the community’s evolutionary stability. Throckmorton was inspired to conclude that the intact intrinsic anatomy came down from one or at most two of the founding members. The activities of the founding members were triggered by the initial settlement of Hawaii and the subsequent spread of drosphilids (as well as other members), all over the archipelago, as a new volcanic island, and became liveable.
It is known that the resulting events and the random drift that accompany them result in speciation and therefore the underlying effect is believed to be the insular speciation’s main driving force. While the power of sexual selection and genetic drift may possibly explain dramatic differences in male mating behaviour and morphology, they fail to account for the ecological differences that were an important aspect of Hawaiian Drosophila adaptive radiation.
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