Statistics 13

NOTE: The assignment consists of 4 parts:

1. Read the attached chapter (11)

2. Read the following web links:







3. Read the following link about the relationship between Student Growth Assessments

(SGA) and Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL):


• Discuss the 7 questions below about the relationship between SGA and SOL. These

questions mirror Utts’ 7 Reasons Two Variables Could Be Related (p. 235-239) in the

attached chapter and are designed to make you think about the relationship between SGA and

SOL in terms of these 7 reasons. A good way to approach this discussion would be to first

post your responses to the questions and then discuss how your responses are similar or

different from your group members.

1. Do you think performance on the SGA is the direct cause of performance on the SOL?

2. Do you think SOL performance is causing a change in SGA performance?

3. Do you think performance on the SGA is contributing but not the sole cause of performance

on the SOL?

4. What confounding variables could be responsible for the observed relationship between SGA

and SOL?

5. Could performance on both SGA and SOLs result from a common cause?

6. Since both SGA and SOL performances change over time, what does that say about their


7. Could the association between SGA and SOL be nothing more than coincidence?

4. Journal: Read the following story reporting on an observational study,


Explain whether or not you think the headline (“Morning people are happier than night owls,

study suggests”) in the above story is warranted and if not write a more suitable headline. When

thinking about whether or not headline is warranted consider Utts’ 4 Evidences that a Possible

Causal Connection Exists discussed on p. 240-241.

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