The regulation of the substances in and out of the cells based on the concentration is carried out across the cell membrane. These substances that can enter the exit of the cells include ions like calcium, sodium, sugars, amino acids, or fatty acids. Some of the waste materials such as carbon dioxide are also pushed out of the cells through the cell membrane. The cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. Therefore, all the fat-soluble materials can enter the cell easily as they are hydrophobic. However, it requires a surface receptor or some carrier molecule to transport the water-soluble materials into the cells. The filtration by the semi-permeable membrane is carried out based on size. Therefore, only selected molecules can enter the cells. Depending on the energy expenditure, there are two types of pathways known as passive and active transport pathways.
Passive transport of material means the transport happens without utilizing any energy. The movement is mediated by a concentration gradient. The movement will always happen from a part of higher concentration to a part of lower concentration so that it gets equally distributed in the given region. There are three common variants of passive transport mechanisms. They are simple diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.
â€¢ Simple diffusion: Simple diffusion is the transfer of substances from a high concentration region to a low concentration region. For instance- oxygen is very essential for the metabolic process. Hence it is always present in a higher concentration outside the cells. On the other hand, carbon dioxide being a byproduct of metabolism is present in higher concentrations interior of the cells than the outer region of the cells. This mediates the simple diffusion of substances across the lipid membrane. Since these two are gases, it can easily move across the lipid layer. The oxygen enters from outside to the inside and the carbon dioxide gets out of the cells from the higher concentration region to the lower concentration region. Neither of these transports needs any form of energy. Hence, they fall under passive diffusion.
â€¢ Osmosis: Osmosis is the transfer of water through the semipermeable membrane. Normally, water can move in and out of the cells through the peptide receptors or the small pores in the lipid bilayer. However, the movement of the water in and out of the cell is based on the concentration of solutes that are present in it. However, if the semi-permeable layers allow the water to flow, the water by itself can reach the state of equilibrium on either side of the cells. Different organ systems like the kidney perform osmosis to maintain homeostasis.
â€¢ Facilitated diffusion: Certain substances cannot travel past the lipid bilayer because of their polarity as well as size. These substances are transported utilizing facilitated diffusion. The transfer of glucose inside the cell is a suitable example of facilitated diffusion. Glucose is a large and polar molecule. So, despite being available at a higher concentration outside the cells, it cannot get through the lipid bilayer by simple diffusion. Therefore, a special protein acts as a carrier to transfer the glucose into the cells.
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