Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table having one electron and a single proton. The interaction between the negatively charged electron and positively charged nucleus can be calculated by the potential energy function with respect to the distance. To determine the repulsive interaction experienced among electrons, one needs to calculate the shielding constant of the electrons occupying various orbitals. The electrons have difference in shielding constant and penetrating power based upon the type of orbital they are held in. Electrons in s â€“ orbitals have a greater shielding strength and penetration power as compared to those electrons lying in fâ€“orbitals. This shielding constant have much effect over the physical and chemical properties of the element. The underlying subtopics explains about the effective nuclear charge and the consequences of an effective nuclear charge observed in case of hydrogen.
To determine the extent of shielding effect observed by electrons in a poly-electronic atom, shielding constant is calculated. It is very important to calculate the shielding constant of an atom in order to explain the properties and nature of the element due to the effective nuclear charge. Shielding constants explain the extent of attraction of valence electrons towards nucleus experiencing repulsive forces by the inner orbital electrons. Shielding effects help to calculate the effective nuclear charge that explains the size of the atom and the extent of overlapping conditions for bond formation. Effective nuclear charge also explains the stability of the cation by determining which electrons should be ionized in case of transition metals.The order of shielding effect of electrons in the orbital decreases with increase in the angular momentum quantum number of electrons
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