The Main Evolution of life in the Cenozoic Era

Paleogene- This period extends from 66 million years ago to 23 million years ago. The climate of the Paleogene period was tropical. The continents began to drift away and got surrounded by vast oceans. The Paleogene period is sub-divided into 3 epochs- Paleocene (65.5- 55.8 mya), Eocene 55.8- 33.9 mya) and Oligocene 33.9- 23.03 mya). This period marks the origin of the placental mammals. The reformation of the geographical positions of the continents began during this period. America got drifted apart from Panama while India got attached to Asia. The oceans during the paleocene were being dominated by the sharks. The climate of the Paleogene period showed remarkable changes from epoch to epoch. The Eocene epoch showed the origin of grass and many species got evolved for this reason. The Oligocene marked the origin of today’s mammals like elephants, horses, dogs, etc. The mammals began to grow larger.

Neogene- This period extends from 23- 2.6 mya. The Neogene period is sub-divided into two epochs- Miocene (23.03- 5.333 mya) and Pliocene (5.333- 2.58 mya). These epochs saw the evolution of aquatic as well as terrestrial species. Ocean life got evolved, domination of kelp forests was observed during Miocene. The grass dominated the forests. The maximum of today’s plants got evolved during this period. The Pliocene showed a lot of climatic change. Australopithecus were evolving in Africa. Thus it can be said that the early primates were evolved during this period. This period saw a drastic cooling in the climate which resulted in the drying off of the forests. This was the reason that the grass outnumbered the forests. The pines oaks, mosses, etc. also evolved.

Quaternary- this period spans from 2.58 mya- today. It is the shortest period of the recent era. All the modern groups of flora and fauna belong to this period. This period is again divided into 2 epochs- Pleistocene (2.58mya- 11700ya) and Holocene (11700ya- present time). The cooling effect of the climate which started during Paleogene extended in this period also as a result of which the glaciations occurred. The evolution of bigger mammals was seen like lions, wolves, mammoths, and hippos. The most important evolution was of the modern homo sapiens. Domination of flowering plants and cultivated crops started. The climate became a little warmer during the Holocene epoch. Though ironically, the evolution was outnumbered by the extinction during this period. This was an impact of human activities. Cultures and civilizations also evolved in this era.

Evolution of life in the Cenozoic Era
The course of time during the Cenozoic era had a lot of diversities in its climate from tropical, hot to cooler and again the onset of global warming. These changes led to the evolutionary developments in the vegetation as well as the fauna of the earth. The continents started drifting away from the previous positions to the current positions. America got segregated from Antarctica fully. South America got attached to North America. Also, after the extinction of huge reptiles and mammals, the beginning of the evolving of small mammals began. These shorter animals flourished due to the absence of the bigger attackers. A variety of snakes and birds got evolved. The late Cenozoic era marked the increase in human activities and their repercussions. The history or written history is a very small part of this era. Human impact also changed the pace of evolution. Rather it affected the earth towards resources and nutrition-less era. The impact of human activities in some thousand years has doomed the course of evolution through billions of years.

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