Tissue needed for sucrose transport –Phloem

The primary phloem is a part that emerges from the apical meristem region as it contains new cells. The newly emerged cells can either be metaphloem which is quite mature and protophloem which is immature and yet to develop completely. When the plant starts to age, the protophloem stops elongating and gradually dies. However, throughout the whole life cycle, the metaphloem remains active. The secondary phloem develops when the metaphloem disintegrates as the plant ages.

Translocation of sugar: The outcome of the translocation process is the transfer of sucrose from the source to the sink part of the plant. This is mainly due to the pressure-flow model of the phloem. The entire movement is explained in the form of this hypothesis. The following observations were made from the hypothesis.

The phloem will be under pressure.

If the phloem tissue undergoes death, the translocation will stop.

Translocation happens in both directions simultaneously and continuously. However, it does not happen in the same tube.

Components that can inhibit the production of ATP during the formation of sugar can inhibit the translocation as well.

The pressure-flow model works on the principle which states that when the sucrose is present at a high concentration in the source, it creates a low potential of solute that can pull the water from the neighboring xylem vessels into the phloem. This in turn produces a high-pressure gradient in the phloem. This pressure gradient will trigger the phloem to take up sucrose from the source and deliver it to the sink by bulk flow.

The region of the new cells present in the apical meristem of shoot and root differentiates into the primary phloem. It can be either the protophloem which the immature cells or the meta phloem which are the mature cells that appear after the elongation of the plants. Phloem in combination with xylem helps in the conduction of substances from the roots to the region of the plant body. When the plant matures with age, there is no elongation of the protophloem and therefore it dies with time. The metaphloem is almost active at all the stages of the life cycle of the plant. In trees, there is the disintegration of this metaphloem to develop the secondary phloem. This secondary phloem is known as the bark.

Transport in plants:

Plants transport the materials slowly as they contain only lesser energy. However, it spends energy to turn the raw materials into finished and consumable products in the leaves, roots, and stem of the plant. It also distributes the food contents to the roots and also distributes to different parts of the plant. This is because of the presence of vascular tissues which are specialized and is known as phloem and xylem. Out of these, phloem is utilized to transfer the food content throughout the plant body and the xylem is utilized to transfer the water content and the minerals from the ground.

Water from the soil enters into the roots and steadily rises the xylem of the roots. This appears like a column of water that moves upwards continuously.

Through the cells of the leaves, evaporation takes place by a suction process that can suck the water from the xylem tissues of the root. This process is continuous.

There is some loss of water from the aerial parts of the leaves and this pathway is known as transpiration.

This mechanism aids the upward movement and absorption of minerals in the dissolved form from the roots. Temperature regulation of the plants is also controlled by transpiration.

However, soluble food products of photosynthesis are transported by a mechanism known as translocation that uses the phloem vascular tissue.

The phloem also moves amino acids and other materials that are distributed to parts like the roots, fruits, seeds, and other organs.

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