The large intestine plays many roles in the body, such as restoring electrolytes and water, forming and storing feces, and helping in the fermentation of the unassimilated material by bacteria. In the colon, absorption of water, chloride ions, and sodium ions plus secretion of mucus and bicarbonate ions occurs. Water is often usually absorbed in reaction to an osmotic gradient. The process liable for creating this osmotic pressure is similar to that witnessed in the small intestine. The colonic epithelium is further effective in water absorption compared to the small intestine. The hormone aldosterone improves the absorption of sodium in the colon. Besides electrolytes and water, the large intestine effectively absorbs volatile fatty acids. The colon aids in absorbing a little amount of water from the lumen, approximately 400ml per day and when the chyme becomes extremely condensed as it enters the colon, the colon begins to function against a higher osmotic pressure gradient compared to the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract. That is to say; it has to push water against the gradient for osmosis. The colon likewise serves to carry ions. Neuroendocrine processes control absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Endocrine processes utilized in the colon include aldosterone, glucocorticoids, and somatostatin.
When food substances reach the large intestine, about 80 percent of the fluid is absorbed. The total amount of water to the other side of cell membranes often emerges by osmosis, and water absorption is usually reliant on solutes absorption, especially sodium. Water disperses by the osmotic gradient set by sodium into the intercellular space. It appears that the majority of the absorption of water is transcellular. Water and sodium are later distributed into capillary blood inside the villus. Hence, a strong osmotic gradient is created over apical cell membranes and their coupling intersectional groups that osmotically push the flow of water over the epithelium. Water is hence absorbed into the intercellular space by dispersion under an osmotic gradient.
The large intestine is wider than the small intestine, and its main role is to absorb salts and mainly water from the food substances that are not assimilated and eliminate every type of waste that remains. When food blended with digestive juices enters the large intestine, maximum absorption and digestion have already happened. The remaining things are largely water, fiber, dead cells that exuviate from the intestines lining, bile pigment, and salt. Later, microorganisms consume these blends in the large intestine. These useful bacteria provide essential vitamins that are absorbed into the blood, and they consequently further aid in assimilating fiber. The colon is the main part of the large intestine, the main area for water reabsorption, and assimilates salts when required.
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